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Can Creatine Cause Kidney Stones?

Creatine supplementation does not directly cause kidney stones in healthy individuals when taken as recommended. Still caution is advised for those with pre-existing kidney conditions.

Creatine, a popular supplement among athletes and fitness enthusiasts, has sparked debates about its safety. Concerns about kidney health, particularly the formation of kidney stones, have been a topic of discussion. Let’s dive into the facts and dispel the myths surrounding this widely used supplement.

The Basics of Creatine and Kidneys

Creatine is not just a supplement. It’s a naturally occurring compound found in our muscle cells. Our bodies produce it, and we also get it from certain foods. Creatine’s primary function is to help produce energy during high-intensity exercise or heavy lifting.

The kidneys play a crucial role in creatine metabolism. They filter creatine from the blood and excrete it in urine. This relationship between creatine and kidney function has led to concerns about potential adverse effects on kidney health.

Many people worry that increased creatine intake might overwork the kidneys. They fear this could lead to kidney damage or stone formation. But is there any truth to these concerns?

Research suggests otherwise. Multiple studies have shown that creatine supplementation doesn’t harm kidney function in healthy individuals. A comprehensive review of clinical trials found no adverse changes in markers of kidney health in both athletes and the general population.

Still it’s crucial to note that these findings apply to healthy individuals. People with pre-existing kidney conditions might need to exercise more caution. They should always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Debunking the Kidney Stone Myth

The fear of kidney stones is one of the most common concerns associated with creatine use. But is there any scientific evidence to support this fear?

A case report involving a 28-year-old athlete furnishes fascinating insights. This athlete had a history of kidney stones. He underwent treatment for an 11 mm stone in his lower right kidney. After the treatment, he started a two-month course of creatine supplementation.

Surprisingly, follow-up ultrasounds 14 months after stopping creatine showed no kidney stones. This case suggests that creatine supplementation, at recommended doses, didn’t lead to kidney stone recurrence in this individual.

But one case doesn’t tell the whole story. What about larger studies?

Long-term studies and meta-analyses have consistently shown that creatine supplementation doesn’t increase the risk of kidney stone formation in healthy individuals. These studies have looked at various populations, including athletes and non-athletes, over extended periods.

So why does the myth persist? One reason might be the misunderstanding about creatinine levels.

The Creatinine Confusion

Creatinine is a waste product of muscle metabolism. It’s often used as a marker of kidney function. When people start taking creatine supplements, their creatinine levels often increase.

This increase has led some to believe that creatine is damaging the kidneys. Still this is a misinterpretation of the data.

The rise in creatinine levels from creatine supplementation is a “false positive”. It doesn’t indicate kidney damage. Instead, it’s a natural result of increased creatine in the body.

Healthcare professionals are aware of this effect. They take it into account when assessing kidney function in individuals who use creatine supplements. It’s crucial for creatine users to inform their doctors about their supplement use to avoid misdiagnosis.

Hydration and Creatine: A Balancing Act

Another common concern is that creatine might lead to dehydration, potentially increasing the risk of kidney stones. This worry stems from the fact that creatine causes short-term fluid retention in muscles.

Still research paints a different picture. Creatine may actually have a hyper-hydrating effect. This means it could help prevent dehydration and muscle cramps during exercise.

A study found that creatine supplementation can increase total body water. This effect could be beneficial for athletes, especially those competing in hot environments.

But this doesn’t mean you can skip the water bottle. Proper hydration is still crucial, especially when using creatine supplements. Drinking adequate water helps your body process creatine effectively and supports overall kidney health.

Special Cases: When Caution is Key

While creatine is generally safe for healthy individuals, some cases warrant extra caution. People with pre-existing kidney conditions should be particularly careful.

A few isolated reports have shown renal dysfunction in individuals with pre-existing kidney issues who used creatine supplements. For example, a 19-year-old football player experienced impaired kidney function after three months of creatine use. Another case involved a 25-year-old man with a history of kidney problems who saw his condition worsen after two months of supplementation.

These cases highlight the importance of medical supervision for individuals with kidney issues who are considering creatine supplementation. It’s always better to err on the side of caution and consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

The Dangers of Excessive Use

Like many things in life, moderation is key when it comes to creatine use. While normal doses are safe for most people, excessive intake can lead to problems.

One extreme case involved an athlete who consumed more than 10 grams of creatine daily for six weeks. This misuse resulted in a condition called rhabdomyolysis and sudden kidney failure. This case underscores the importance of following recommended dosages.

Typical recommendations for creatine supplementation involve a loading phase of 20 grams per day for 5-7 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 3-5 grams per day. Still these doses can vary based on individual factors like body weight and activity level.

It’s crucial to remember that more isn’t always better. Sticking to recommended doses and cycling off creatine periodically can help ensure safe and effective use.

The Verdict: Creatine and Kidney Stones

After reviewing the available evidence, it appears that creatine supplementation doesn’t cause kidney stones in healthy individuals when taken as recommended. Multiple studies, including long-term research and meta-analyses, support this conclusion.

Still this doesn’t mean creatine is risk-free for everyone. People with pre-existing kidney conditions should exercise caution and consult with a healthcare provider before using creatine supplements.

It’s also crucial to use creatine responsibly. This means following recommended dosages, staying well-hydrated, and being aware of any changes in your body. If you experience any unusual symptoms while using creatine, it’s best to stop use and consult a healthcare professional.

Key Takeaways

  • Creatine supplementation doesn’t appear to cause kidney stones in healthy individuals.
  • People with pre-existing kidney conditions should consult a doctor before using creatine.
  • Increased creatinine levels from creatine use don’t necessarily indicate kidney damage.
  • Proper hydration is crucial when using creatine supplements.
  • Excessive use of creatine can lead to health problems, so stick to recommended doses.


The fear of kidney stones shouldn’t deter healthy individuals from using creatine supplements. The scientific evidence doesn’t support this concern. Still it’s crucial to use creatine responsibly and be aware of your own health status.

As with any supplement, it’s always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting creatine use. They can provide personalized advice based on your individual health status and needs. Bear in mind your health is unique, and what works for others may not be ideal for you.

In the end, creatine remains one of the most studied and generally safe supplements available. When used correctly, it can be an effective tool for improving athletic performance and muscle growth. Just remember to listen to your body, stay informed, and prioritize your overall health and well-being.


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