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Has Creatine Killed Anyone?

No confirmed deaths directly attributed to creatine use. Research indicates creatine is safe when used properly.

Creatine, a popular supplement among athletes and fitness enthusiasts, has sparked debates about its safety. We investigate the facts surrounding creatine use and addresses concerns about potential fatalities.

Creatine: Nature’s Energy Booster

Creatine occurs naturally in our bodies and certain foods. It plays a crucial role in energy production, especially during high-intensity activities. Muscle cells store creatine as phosphocreatine, which helps regenerate ATP, the primary energy currency of cells.

Creatine supplements aim to increase these stores, potentially enhancing performance and muscle growth. The most common form, creatine monohydrate, has been extensively studied for decades. Its popularity stems from its perceived benefits in strength, power, and muscle mass gains.

But misconceptions about creatine’s safety persist. Some worry about potential kidney damage or other severe side effects. These concerns have led to questions about whether creatine use has resulted in any deaths.

Safety Profile: What Research Says

Extensive research supports creatine’s safety when used as directed. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) has declared creatine supplementation safe for healthy individuals. This endorsement comes after years of studies examining both short-term and long-term effects.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies creatine as “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). This designation indicates a consensus among qualified experts that the available scientific data supports its safety.

According to a study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, creatine supplementation does not increase the risk of dehydration, muscle cramps, or heat illness. In fact, the study found that creatine users experienced fewer instances of these issues compared to non-users.

Debunking Myths: Kidney Function and Creatine

One persistent myth suggests that creatine harms kidney function. But research does not support this claim. Multiple studies have found no adverse effects on kidney function in healthy individuals using creatine supplements.

A review published in the Journal of Renal Nutrition concluded that creatine supplementation does not negatively impact kidney function in individuals with healthy kidneys. The review emphasized that concerns about kidney damage from creatine use in healthy populations are unfounded.

But individuals with pre-existing kidney conditions should consult a healthcare professional before using creatine supplements. This precaution ensures personalized advice based on individual health status.

Reported Incidents: Separating Fact from Fiction

While anecdotal reports of adverse events associated with creatine use exist, confirmed fatalities directly attributed to creatine are nonexistent. Most reported incidents involve factors unrelated to creatine itself.

For instance, some cases of dehydration or heat stroke during intense physical activity have been mistakenly linked to creatine use. These conditions can occur regardless of supplement use and often result from inadequate hydration or extreme environmental conditions.

A rare case report from 2006 documented kidney failure in a 24-year-old weightlifter using creatine monohydrate along with other bodybuilding supplements. But this isolated incident involved multiple factors, making it impossible to attribute the outcome solely to creatine.

Proper Use: Key to Safety

Misuse or overdose of any supplement can lead to adverse effects. With creatine, excessive intake may cause gastrointestinal distress or muscle cramps. But these effects are typically not life-threatening and can be avoided by following recommended dosage instructions.

The standard protocol for creatine supplementation involves a loading phase of 20 grams per day for 5-7 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 3-5 grams daily. This regimen has been shown to be safe and effective in numerous studies.

Proper hydration is crucial when using creatine supplements. Creatine draws water into muscle cells, potentially increasing the risk of dehydration if fluid intake is inadequate. Drinking plenty of water helps mitigate this risk.

Expert Opinions: What Professionals Say

Registered dietitians and researchers generally agree on creatine’s safety when used correctly. Caroline Thomason, RD, CDCES, emphasizes the importance of consulting a healthcare provider before starting creatine, especially for individuals with pre-existing health conditions.

Harvard Health Publishing supports creatine’s safety, noting that an adult dose of 3 to 5 grams daily is safe. But they caution that people with kidney disease should consult their doctor before taking it.

Dr. Richard Kreider, a leading researcher in the field of exercise and nutrition, has conducted numerous studies on creatine. His research consistently supports the safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation when used as directed.

Potential Benefits: Beyond Safety Concerns

While safety is paramount, it’s worth noting the potential benefits of creatine supplementation. Research has shown that creatine can enhance exercise performance, particularly in high-intensity, short-duration activities.

A meta-analysis published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research found that creatine supplementation significantly improved performance in tasks lasting 30 seconds or less. This improvement was seen across various activities, including weightlifting and sprinting.

Creatine may also support muscle growth and strength gains when combined with resistance training. This effect is particularly pronounced in vegetarians and older adults, who may have lower baseline creatine levels.

Considerations for Special Populations

While creatine is generally safe for healthy adults, certain populations should exercise caution. Pregnant or breastfeeding women, for example, should avoid creatine supplementation due to a lack of research on its effects during these periods.

Individuals with pre-existing medical conditions, particularly kidney or liver disease, should consult their healthcare provider before using creatine. This precaution ensures that supplementation doesn’t interfere with existing health issues or medications.

Young athletes should also approach creatine use with caution. While some studies have shown creatine to be safe in adolescents, long-term effects are not well-established. Parental guidance and professional advice are crucial in these cases.

Key Takeaways

  • No confirmed deaths directly attributed to creatine use
  • Extensive research supports creatine’s safety when used as directed
  • Creatine does not harm kidney function in healthy individuals
  • Proper use and hydration are crucial for safe supplementation
  • Consult a healthcare provider before starting creatine, especially with pre-existing conditions
  • Potential benefits include enhanced exercise performance and muscle growth


The question “Has creatine killed anyone?” can be answered with a resounding no, based on current scientific evidence. Creatine has proven to be one of the safest and most effective supplements available when used correctly. But as with any supplement, it’s essential to use creatine responsibly and under appropriate guidance. The benefits of creatine for exercise performance and muscle growth are well-documented, making it a valuable tool for many athletes and fitness enthusiasts. As research continues, our understanding of creatine’s effects and safety profile will likely expand, potentially uncovering new applications and benefits.


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